The term landscape refers to the study of Landscape physical features of an area of land such as the type of landforms, presence water bodies such as rivers, lakes and the sea, existence of living elements of land cover, topography and the quality and type of vegetation .The study also involves the weather changes in a particular environment.
Topography influences human life in different ways. Its effects on farming and transportation are pronounced. The level topography of the plains puts minimal constrains on the development of agriculture and the network of transportation. But in certain highlands ruggedness of topography makes development of farming and transportation difficult. In the areas which are not rugged, agriculture is confined to the narrow river valleys.
The study of climate is classified as dry climate and Highland climate. Dry climate is the characteristic feature of the climate in which potential evaporation exceeds precipitation. It is subdivided as Arid or desert which is in the case when potential evaporation exceeds precipitation by more than two times, and semi arid or steepe is the case when potential evapo transpiration exceeds precipitation but is not twice as great. The two subgroups are further divided into two climatic types on the basis of temperature. Areas where the temperature of the coolest month is 10 or less are classified as Kalt and those with more than ten as Heiss.
Soil gives support to the plants and act as an agent supplying wholly or in part nutrients, water, air and heat. Now we see that what the factors that affect the soil formation are. These include climate9temperature and precipitation), vegetation and living organisms, parent material, topography and time. The role of climate is that in sub humid regions the quality of soil is good but in the areas of ice there is no soil. Alluvium, loessa, wind reworked sands act as parent materials. With regard to topography the areas of different areas develop different soils. Soil formation is a complex phenomenon and requires considerable time. The conversion of the bedrocks into regolith is a time consuming process. Soil erosion is a menace which destroys the soils. It is unfortunate that the problem of soil erosion has not roused much public and government attention. Water and wind are the two main agents of erosion in Pakistan. Soil erosion has been further accelerated by landslides and soil creep and by the cutting of the forest, overgrazing and poor management of the farmlands. It must be noted that wind and water erosion both work together particularly in the desert and the semi-desert areas.