Diabetes is a medical term that refers to a range of disorders that are characterized by abnormal thirst and frequent weak urination. One of the dog health issues by breed, diabetes in canines comes in of two forms:
Diabetes Insipidus or drinking diabetes
Diabetes Mellis or sugar diabetes
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition caused due to trouble maintaining water balance in the body. When affected by DI your dog will not be able to concentrate urine because of which he’ll urinate more frequently. The term "insipid" refers to dilute urine.
A rare form of dog health issues by breed, DI, a permanent condition, can only be diagnosed once blood and urine tests are carefully studied. In this form of disease, dogs generally drink more than normal water and urinate more often. However, pet owners mustn’t conclude that their pet has diabetes insipidus based on these symptoms alone. Lack of proper treatment can lead to dehydration, coma, and even death.
Most often pet owners ask pet health questions such as, "my dog has started drinking and urination more than normal, does he have diabetes insipidus?" There can be many reasons why your dog may have increased his intake of water or "polydipsia" and increased urination or ‘polyuria,’ such as diabetes mellis and some other kidney problems. It’s imperative that you get the dog checked by a good veterinarian as well as ask him/her pet health questions to ascertain the actual cause of these dog health issues.
Types Of Diabetes Insipidus
There are two main types of diabetes insipidus:
1. Central Diabetes Insipidus: Central DI is caused due to lack of adequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland. Pet health questions are important to understand the other causes and effects of central diabetes insipidus and some of these include congenital defect, one or more tumors on the pituitary gland, trauma, or other causes.
2. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Nephrogenic DI is caused due to lack of response by the kidneys to the antidiuretic hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland. Some causes of nephrogenic DI include congenital defect, metabolic disorders, or drugs.
Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus
A vet would typically, try to rule out other diseases with similar symptoms such as ‘Hyperadrenocorticism’ or Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), hyperthyroidism in felines, renal failure, and liver disease among other dog health issues by breed.
Treatment of Diabetes Insipidus
Central DI can be treated with a drug called ‘Desmopressin’ that fulfills the lack of antidiuretic hormone. Available as DDAVP, its formulations include nasal spray pump; liquid to be used rhinal tube; liquid injection for subcutaneous penetration; and in tablet form for oral penetration.
Nephrogenic DI can be controlled with ‘Thiazide diuretics.’ The main purpose of these medications is to allow concentration of urine. Oral medicine such as ‘chlorothiazide’ works with the kidneys to ensure that urine can be concentrated.