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Harappa's Civilization
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By: Mansoor Lakhani Email Article
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Archaeologists discovered two 4000 year old cities lying 400 meters away from each other on the bank of the River Indus. Harappa is one of the largest and most important cities of the Indus Civilization. It is one of the best known sites in Pakistan and is located on the bank of the Ravi River in Punjab Province. It is believed that this city was occupied around 3300 and 1500 BC and covers an area of 250 acres. Like Mohenjodaro, several well built structures displaying great architectural skills have been discovered at Harappa. These include the remains of a citadel, a granary and some cemeteries. The people of Harappa lived in strong brick houses that were often up to three stories high and the city also had an excellent drainage system. The entire city plan is proof of the fact that the people who lived here were civilized and lived in a proper societal setup.

The Harappan civilization was basically urban and the society consisted of many traders who traded with southern India and Afghanistan.

Much of the artwork from this civilization was small and made for personal use. The first objects discovered from this ancient site were small stone seals made of steatite which had pictures of animals, both real and imaginary. Carvings of an ancient script have also been found on the seals. It is believed that the seals may have had some sort of a religious or symbolic significance. Female figurines made of terra cotta have also been unearthed from Harappa. These figures are often crudely made with females wearing huge head dresses with spaces for small lamps on the sides, which indicate the dress code of that time and place. Jewellery items made of shell or semi precious stones have also been excavated from this ancient site.

The Harappan civilization reached its zenith around 2500 BC and began to decline about 2000 BC. The causes of its downfall are uncertain. Some historians suggest that the Aryans may have conquered the territory while others suggest that the people dispersed and became nomads possibly because the soil had lost its fertility so agriculture became difficult.

Despite the fact that it is in ruins, the city still serves to be an attraction for historians, students as well as a number of tourists because of its grandeur and its excellent architecture. To cater to tourists and students, a souvenir shop which offers a large variety of items, is located within the city so that visitors can send gifts to Pakistan and also take something back with them as a reminder of the secrets buried within the ruins. In fact, the shop also offers courier facilities through which Pakistan gifts can be sent to relatives and friends so that they too, can get a glimpse of what the historical site has to offer. It must be remembered that Harappa is an ancient site and therefore it is uncertain as to how long it will remain. Therefore, it would be wise to give your loved ones an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of this ancient city with you by sending them souvenirs and Pakistan gifts that they will actually cherish.

[url=]Mansoor Technologies is a consulting and development firm. We design,build and deploy straightforward, yet sophisticated solutions that tackle everyday business challenges and deliver measurable competitive advantage.[url=]Send gifts to Pakistan and also take something back with them as a reminder of the secrets buried within the ruins.

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